Finished Products: From Tank Farms to Fuel Tanks
Shale Gas Revolution
Technological advancements have made it possible for production companies to move beyond vertical wells and tap into the source rock. Thanks to ever-advancing techniques such as horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing (AKA fracking), large amounts of natural gas that were previously inaccessible using conventional methods are being produced. The resulting natural gas surplus has driven prices down and lead to an industry shift: natural gas liquids (NGLs) have been promoted from a byproduct of gas production to a coproduct.
The increasing importance of NGLs as a revenue stream has forced changes in production methods and refinement processes to make the high amounts of NGLs in liquids-rich shale plays like Eagle Ford and Marcellus more profitable. Given the broad spectrum of molecules associated with oil and gas and the number of supply chain activities, a one-size-fits-all approach to sampling would not be appropriate. Yet proper sampling is required throughout the oil and gas supply chain to know the quality and quantity of pipeline fluids, as both are necessary for accurate fiscal measurement. The market changes resulting from the shale gas renaissance mean NGLs continue to increase in value, making representative sampling all the more critical.
For Good Measure
Seal the Deal
After being blended at the refinery, fuels are housed in bulk storage tanks at an oil terminal before being taken to market. Though no other processing occurs at an oil depot, it is a custody transfer point, meaning ownership of the finished fuels will be transferred from a seller to a buyer. Accurate sampling is important to both parties, as the sample analysis determines the quantity, quality, and ultimately the price of the fuel being sold. A small error in measurement can lead to large financial differences—something to avoid in the downstream sector, which uses gross margin (i.e., the difference between the realized price of finished products and the cost of crude oil) to measure economic performance.
Representative samples of jet fuels, aviation fuels, and gasolines are critical for accurate fiscal metering. For these refined products, accurate composition analysis is key to optimal valuation. With this in mind, Welker designed the Closer™ Refined Products Sampling System, a bypass sampling system that makes sampling multiple batches and even multiple pipelines convenient. The Closer™ can accommodate a wide range of pipeline diameters and flow rates starting at 4000 bbl/d. Let us tailor a turnkey system to your unique application with our Plus Welker™ line.
Speaking From Experience
With sixty-five years in the oil and gas industry, you can rely on our expertise to determine the best fit for your requirements. From on-site service to in-house repairs, our factory trained technicians and refinery and light liquids experts have you covered.