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WELKER > Papers

Flow Limiting Nozzles

Welker Flow Limiting Nozzles will allow turbine meters to flow at designed capacities while at the same time providing them with the over-range protection required without significant pressure loss to the flowing system.
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With Time Comes Wisdom

David J. Fish, Senior Vice President, Welker, Inc., USA, provides an overview of LNG sampling systems and their streamlined evolution over recent years.
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Custody Transfer Crude Oil Sampling Systems

In the oil and gas industry, there are generally two ways that we take measurements of product. The first is by volume. As fluid flows through a pipeline or sits in a tank, the industry has developed many ways by which we can capture that fluid and calculate “how much” of a particular product we...
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Fundamentals of NGL Sampling Systems

The purpose of this paper is to discuss in depth systems we use as a standard to sample natural gas liquids, or NGL’s. Before we discuss the systems and methods used to sample these products, we must first clearly define what NGL’s are. NGL’s can be a combination of any fluid in liquid form that...
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A Case For and an Update to Research and Testing on the Issue of Hydrocarbon Wet Gas Sampling

In the last 25 years, the natural gas pipeline industry has transitioned from the supplier of clean, dry gas to the mover of billable gas energy; clean and dry or dirty and wet.  The amount of hydrocarbon product that is transported between producer, processor, distributor and user is significant.  To be able to verify the...
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D.O.T. Requirements for the Transportation of Sample Cylinders

The United States Department of Transportation (D.O.T.) is a department of the U.S. Federal Government which oversees all issues regarding transportation within the United States of America and U.S. Territories.  Its influence around the world is great and widely respected, but its jurisdiction and power of enforcement is limited to the USA and its territories. ...
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Techniques of Gas Composite Sampling

The need to be able to take a representative sample of a hydrocarbon product is necessary to ensure proper accounting for transactions and efficient product processing.  The various sampling methods that are available and the options and limitations of these methods are investigated; the most appropriate equipment to use; the reasons for its use and...
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Crude Oil Sampling

The sampling techniques employed in extracting a representative sample for crude oil BS&W analysis has received a high level of scrutiny in the last twenty years from concerned oil companies around the world.  The revenue implications are considerable, if the sample is not accurate.  Whether it is pipeline custody transfer, tanker loading/unloading, or refinery input,...
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The Importance of Discerning the Impact of New Measurement Technology

With the current demand for improved technologies in the area of fluid measurement, the rush to the market place is raising as many questions as it is answering.  In the last 25 years, the natural gas pipeline industry has transitioned from the supplier of clean, dry gas to the mover of billable gas energy; clean...
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Instrument Supply Filtration Systems for the Oil, Gas, Petrochemical and Industrial Industry

Filtration in the Oil and Gas Industry can cover a wide range of applications.  There are filtration systems for pipeline flow, dehydration systems, wellhead filters, process filters, large volume filters and small volume knock out filters.  There are various applications and thus there are many manufacturers that supply filtration in one form or another to...
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